Archive for the ‘Blogroll’ Category

The Dave Grohl Speech

Sunday, December 5th, 2021

I received a YouTube link from my daughter to an SXSW keynote-speech, by former Nirvana drummer and Foo Fighters founder Dave Grohl.

In the 70s & 80s, I tuned in to the descendants of the Byrds and Buffalo Springfield, Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young, Richie Furay’s & Jim Messina’s POCO, Chris Hillman’s & Graham Parsons’ Flying Burrito Brothers.  Add Dylan, the Beatles, Kinks, Dire Straits, Emmylou Harris, John Mayall …. stop me, I can go on forever.  They were my musical fix.

By the 90s, my wife & I were raising four kids.  Nirvana’s “Smells Like Teen Spirit” didn’t make our family playlist.  Raffi had taken over my audio system.  My laserdisc player endlessly repeated Disney’s, Robin Hood.

I’m not complaining.  My family is the high point in my life.

Belatedly Dave Grohl finally entered my awareness with this keynote speech.  He sketched out how to create the soul of pure, honest music.  I ‘cracked up’ as he demonstrated how to multi-track record with a $30.00 portable cassette.  His point, you don’t need money to find your voice, do it.

I am taking the liberty, for us non-musicians, to respectively transpose Grohl’s “find your voice” to chart your path, then don’t think, throw. Revise and do it again.

Select this LINK to Grohl’s speech.

Refer your audio/video friends to

It’s A Matte of Scale

Sunday, October 24th, 2021

Accurate luminance reproduction precisely ascends and scales, from absolute black to specified white light.  It’s a scale or grayscale that generates accurate colors, much as audio frequency response generates musical timbre.  The grayscale is a prerequisite for high-performance HDR UltraHD video reproduction.

The contrast ratio is the difference between the brightest and darkest screen images.  The difference establishes the dynamic range of luminance plus shades of color, much as the dynamic range of an audio system that recreates shades of harmonic detail to the concussive exploding sound.

There are two types of contrast ratio measurement — dynamic and ANSI static.

The contrast ratio is the most quoted by manufacturers, e-zines, and magazines.  Dynamic contrast refers to the deepest black versus the brightness white that a television, studio monitor, projector/screen can display.  But not at the same time.  Dynamic contrast is an all-on versus all-off test.  This simple test can generate impressive numbers such as 20,000:1 or much higher. But not necessarily impressive video.

ANSI Static
The ANSI static contrast ratio uses a standardized checkerboard test pattern of black and white rectangles.  The ANSI standard simultaneously measures the difference between the darkest black and brightest white displayed side by side on the screen.  This spec more accurately predicts potential performance.

Key Point
Grayscale and dynamic range are baseline specs.  They set the table for high-performance HDR UltraHD home theater video reproduction.

For more information, select this link … Ed’s AV Handbook chapter 4 page 8


It’s a good year for custom AV

Wednesday, July 28th, 2021

Custom AV is in good shape.

Home theater system sales have spiked.
Nearly half of all installations include multiroom distribution
with 4 zones, 8 loudspeakers, which included an outdoor zone.

Outdoor Speaker System | Have more fun.
Outdoor backyard audio issues are similar to an outdoor concert.
The lack of reinforcement from indoor boundaries significantly decreases the decibel level.  Simply raising the volume can overdrive speakers, create harsh sound.

If the speakers can handle it, doubling the db level requires nearly
10 times the power.  That’s expensive.  Doubling the db level is achieved, at a lower cost, by doubling the number of speakers.
Then add a decent stout reasonably-priced amplifier.  The additional speakers deliver dynamic warmer sound even at a moderate lower volume.

Home Theater & Multiroom | Add the SandTrap
The in-wall or in-ceiling speaker is the solution for many installations.
However, speakers mounted in sheetrock create harsh sound and decrease in decibel level.  Rescue the system performance.
Add the SandTrap.  It revives the performance customers paid for.

More Money | Give them what they paid for.
Customers paid for better.  Better costs more.
Conservatively given at least 2 indoor zones plus 4 speakers in the home theater system, this adds up to at least 6 SandTrap reinforced speakers.

At $69.99 per SandTrap + $20/speaker additional labor,
that adds about $540.00 to each job.

The result sounds better.
That’s what customers paid for.

Captain Ed

Refer a custom AV dealer friend to SandTrapAudio.

Sales & Referrals

Wednesday, July 28th, 2021

I read a story by a corporate ad agency CEO.
He used wordy big-corp price-enhancing vocabulary.

For example,
he referred to his ad agency as a “demand generation agency.”
Yet his ultimate point was valid and relevant. Word-of-mouth,
a low-cost-powerful-
effectivemethod, increases sales.

It was not news to me.  In 1973 my business mentor declared,

Satisfied customers are a gold mine. Work this mine again & again.
They will generate new sales plus word-of-mouth referrals.”

With the assistance of my official
SandTrap Audio d
emand generation hat,
may I suggest generating sales and word-of-mouth
with the following?

Find a free date on your installation calendar.
Call a customer.
Set up a FREE house call.
Offer a FREE system check-up and re-calibration.
Return to your calendar and repeat.

Customers love FREE plus ….

House calls lead to questions.
Answers lead to upgrades.
Upgrades improve performance.
• Improved performance creates a happy customer.
• A happy customer generate
s referrals.

May I also suggest the SandTrap as a quick and inexpensive upgrade?
Use it to improve performance, promote your custom expertise,
and make more money.

And refer a custom AV dealer friend to
Captain Ed @

8K Magic or Hype?

Monday, July 19th, 2021

The Magic Window
Your TV screen is a flat two-dimensional magic window.  Increasing video resolution, expanding color volume, and a faster frame rate extend the magical illusion.  The best magic windows attempt to convince us the window is reality.  Does UHD 8K TV expand the magic window?

At a comfortable viewing distance, it’s hard to see the pixel difference between HDTV and UHD 4K TV.  It’s even harder to see the difference between UHD 4K and UHD 8K.  Of course, this differs with screen size.

HDR + Frame Rate
Current TV screens have nearly achieved Digital Cinema P3 color space.  HDR (high dynamic range) has opened the gateway to the next color goal of reproducing 76% of visible color — CIE REC 2020.  120Hz frame rates have also entered the scene.  120Hz is the portal to virtual and augmented reality.

Real World
How can 8K improve the magic window?
We view the world within an infinite depth of field of visual electromagnetic energy.  Our perception includes an array of physical and psychological elements.

8K Answer
Our perception is the combined result of the left-eye + right-eye + the brain.  Our brain responds to what our eyes do not see.  8K resolution adds near-invisible sensory detail.  The brain interprets broader color volume, faster frame rate, plus increased 8K video resolution, as being closer to that real-world window.  8K  is a valid step toward achieving the ultimate magic window.

Captian Ed
SandTrap Audio


Should I use an architectural speaker back box?

Monday, June 28th, 2021

A speaker back-box can be used to protect an architectural
in-wall/ceiling speaker from construction insulation and/or comply with commercial fire codes.  And if the box is also audio-engineered for the speaker, you’re good.  However, a generic back-box can severely compromise audio performance.

I sourced the following information from reputable manufacturers*, plus my 5 decades of audio experience.

The best manufacturers engineer their architectural speakers for the intended enclosure.

Unless an engineered cabinet is included, better in-wall speakers
are designed for a sealed acoustic suspension enclosure of 2.79 cubic feet.  That’s equal to 2″ x 4″ wood studs, 16″ on-center, a layer of sheetrock, by 8 feet high.  The sealed enclosure also prevents out-of-phase front/back sound waves from canceling each other.  A smaller cavity compromises low-frequency bass performance.

Better in-ceiling speakers are designed for an infinite baffle enclosure.
This is based on 2 criteria.  A typical residential ceiling meets both.

1. An enclosure volume of more than or equal to 10 times the Vas of the woofer.

Yeah right,
try and find the Vas of your architectural speaker. However, I was once informed* by 2 reputable manufacturers, that 5 or more cubic feet qualify.

2. As the acoustic suspension design, isolate the front sound wave from the back wave.

Enclosure construction is also important.  Wood wall studs & ceiling joists are a good start.  But sheet-rock severely compromises the enclosure. Distorting out-of-phase sheet-rock resonance creates significant loss from the lower bass frequencies through the vocal ranges.

3 Solution Options
1. Rebuild the wall with a material of more mass/weight.
Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) panels work well.

2. Build and insert a reinforcing MDF sub-baffle on the back of the sheet-rock.

3. Insert a sand-filled SandTrap sub-baffle.

If the 1st option is not feasible, then consider option #2.  However, option #3 is easier and more effective.  Sand offers more mass than MDF, and re-tunes system resonance to a lower more audibly suitable frequency.  That’s my choice.  But I’m biased.  I am the captain and owner of SandTrap Audio.


*Note: I recently tried to reconfirm the manufacture’s recommended cabinet data.  I was confronted by phone-tree-staff that could only recite less than helpful scripted generic information.  It appears the techs are no longer available.

Check out my favorite website Links:
Ed’s AV Handbook SandTrapAudio


#4 Next Wave / OLED IOLED Contrast Ratio

Sunday, August 30th, 2020

Part 4 of 4

Goodbye LCD

Your video source defines potential possible performance.  Connected AV components and interconnecting cable must allow the video to pass unaltered.  Your TV determines the ultimate result.  


The organic light-emitting diode’s contrast ratio has led OLED TV to the high-performance leader.  Advanced inorganic light-emitting diode technology, IOLED, is coming.  Both consist of single-pixel points of light that range from full-on brightness to full-off. 

Nit Picking Difference   

A Nit is a measure of brightness.  For reference, the noonday sun measures around 1,600,000,000 nits.  The night sky around 0.001 nits.  UHD LCD TVs currently achieve a brightness level of 1500 nits.  OLED screens measure 540 nits. 

Whoa, LCD is far brighter than OLED.  Yes, but LCD TV can only achieve a black level of 0.05 nit, while current OLED screens achieve a black level of 0.0005 nit.  High dynamic range lies in the contrast difference. 

It’s a Difference of Ratios.  

The dynamic range of video is the difference between the darkest black level and the brightness white.  The ratio of the black level to the brightest level equals the contrast ratio. 

LCD TVs have achieved contrast ratios of 30,000:1.  Current OLED models approach 1,000,000:1.  OLED contrast ratio is the HDR gateway to a more lifelike natural colors.

LEDs and Q-Dots

Current OLED TVs border the DCI P3 color standard.  But the future lies in the REC.2020 color specification.  Steps toward that goal have begun. 

Samsung plans to ship its new QD-OLED televisions in 2021 or 2022.  The Q corresponds to quantum-dot.  The quantum dot is a molecular semiconducting particle that produces light when struct by UV or blue LED light.  Samsung uses blue LEDs to stimulate and create red and green quantum-dot sub-pixels of light.  Their remaining blue LEDs produced the blue sub-pixels.  Their QD-OLED TVs will further improve contrast and color gamut. 

They have also announced the future release of QNED TVs.  Again the Q corresponds to the quantum dot.  But the organic LEDs are replaced with inorganic LEDs.  Inorganic light-emitting diodes are substantially brighter, which further extends the contrast ratio.  QNED TVs should approach 12bit REC.2020 color.

Don’t get caught up in the numbers and acronyms.  The salient UHD HDR point — all real LED pixel-based displays can turn a pixel off while an adjacent pixel is full-on.

OLED and IOLED contrast ratio, and its expanded color gamut, plus advanced manufacturing development has led Samsung to announce their planned discontinuation of LCD production.  Say goodbye to LCD.

Pothole Warning   Avoid bumps in the AV road.  Confirm the essential specifications of all connected electronics and interconnecting cables.  For example, if a TV does not explicitly specify a list of HDR formats, then assume it does not support HDR at all.  A ULTRAHD Premium logo confirms support for Premium Alliance specs.  The best UltraHD products exceed their standards with support for HDMI 2.1, Dolby Vision, HDR10+, and HGL.  

Catch the Wave

A new era of AV magic lies in your AV professional hands.  It’s a mix of nits, contrast ratio, color gamut, light-emitting diodes, wide-bandwidth Internet access, audio/video streaming, and off-air antennas.  It’s a new wave of profitable opportunities.


Additional Note: 

Web Search Confusion – A web search did not easily reveal QNED as inorganic technology.  The ‘N’ in QNED stands for nanorod LED.  Inorganic tech is hidden in nanorod LED illustrations.  Look closely at the labeling.  GaN is gallium nitride.  Gallium nitride is an inorganic material.  Therefore, a nanorod LED is an inorganic LED.  And QNED is IOLED TV.

Web Search Correction – A web search produced many Samsung QNED stories that incorrectly identified quantum dots as color filters.  Quantum dots are not filters.  Quantum dots are points of illuminating light.  

Check out my website Ed’s AV Handbook & business site SandTrapAudio.







#3 Next Wave / UltraHD (UHD), 8K UHD, HDR

Sunday, August 30th, 2020

Part 3 of 4

UltraHD (referred to as 4K) quadruples video resolution from about two million HDTV pixels to more than eight million pixels.  That’s good.  Pixel count is easy to explain, but difficult to see. 

8K UltraHD doubles UltraHD (UHD) resolution, which quadruples the number of UHD pixels.   Again, the pixel-count is easy to explain.  Yet even more difficult to see. 

HDTV            1080 lines x 1920 pixels/line = 2,073,600 pixels

UltraHD          2130 lines x 3840 pixels/line = 8,294,400 pixels  

8K UltraHD    4320 lines x 7680 pixels/line = 33,177,600 pixels

As the early days of HDTV, 8K UHD video sources will be in short supply for some time.  The current resolution benefit of 8K, with the assistance of AI-upscale software, is primarily focused on wall-sized screens. 

The Viewable Difference  

High Dynamic Range is more complicated to explain but easy to see.  HDR expands the difference between the darkest black and brightest white pixel.  It creates an expansive grayscale that produces more detailed side-by-side simultaneous dark-bright light.  This extended broader grayscale also increases color gamut.  This may be the most significant difference since the introduction of color. 


The C.I.E. is the international committee of color standards.  Their C.I.E. color chart defines the visible range of color and sets video standards.  UltraHD HDR employs two C.I.E. color standard options,  DCI P3 and REC.2020.

Digital Cinema Initiative P-3 represents 45.5% of the C.I.E. color chart.  REC.2020 equals 75.8% of the color chart.  For reference, HDTV REC.709 equals 35.9% of the chart. 

DCI P-3 satisfies current UHD standards.  REC.2020 is the future objective.  In either case, both support more lifelike natural colors that are considerably more visible than UHD  pixels. 

HDR  Caveat  

HDR utilizes competing formats.  Your choice of video sources dictates the format.  The TV must decode the format.  Front running formats include HDR10, Dolby Vision, HDR10+, and HGL. 

HDR10 is the baseline default format for all HDR sources and TVs. 

Dolby Vision has become the high-performance option.

HDR10+ is an alternative to Dolby Vision.

HGL is the NextGenTV broadcast format.

HDMI Caveat

HDR formats are dependent on HDMI specifications.  Non-compliant interconnecting cable or AV components produce blank screens or downgrade the video to standard dynamic range. 

HDMI 2.0a supports HDR10. 

HDMI 2.0b adds support for HGL. 

HDMI 2.1 adds support for 10bit HDR10+ and 12bit Dolby Vision. 


The UltraHD Premium Alliance, an association of manufacturers, studios, and others, established baseline UltraHD HDR specifications. 

3840 x 2160 video resolution. 

LCD 0.05nit to 1000 nit brightness. 

OLED 0.0005nit to 540 nit brightness. 

10bit Color. 

90% of the DCI P3 color gamut. 

The UltraHD Premium logo validates product meets their standards. 


Continue to part #4 “OLED, IOLED, Contrast Ratio”

Visit my website Ed’s AV Handbook  & business site SandTrapAudio.








#2 Next Wave / Channels Of Distribution

Sunday, August 30th, 2020

Part 2 of 4

I travel a strip of historic US40 almost daily.  Long ago, the interstate highway system drove the old highway off the road map as an obscure alternate route.  Remnants of its past still lie in the trees and brush at the side of the old road — the foundation of a gas station, bent rusty motel sign, a worn and dated bridge.  

It’s an age-old story.  US40 shelved the old Lincoln Highway.  The Lincoln Highway ended the Union Pacifics’ near-monopoly of an east-west US trade route. The railroad ended east-west ship-by-sea via Cape Horn’s dominance of commerce.   It was also a welcome alternative to travel by horse-drawn wagon. 

Each new channel of distribution stunted the economic clout of the existing primary channel.  Each created a new profitable opportunity.  And 5G cellular networks and NextGenTV are primed to do much the same as they accelerate cable and satellite cord-cutting.  

5G Networks 

5G is a new and improved 5th generation cellular network.  It is also a nationwide Internet hotspot that enhances wireless Internet access.  5G broadcasts via three radio bands — mmWave, Mid-band Sub6, and low-band.  Each has a distance, speed, or signal obstruction advantage. 

mmWave 24GHz to 90GHz

mmWave provides tremendous data speeds.  But mmWave is short on range and has trouble penetrating windows and walls. 

Mid-band Sub6 3GHz to 4GHz

Mid-band Sub6 lies between 4G-LTE and WiFi.  It has fewer solid obstacle issues but still boosts data speeds.  Plus, it provides coverage in densely populated areas. 

Low-band 700MHz 

Low-band forms the backbone of 5G.  It offers reliable coverage via existing 4G-LTE sites.  Low-band data speeds are marginally better than 4G-LTE but more than sufficient for most needs. 

5G’s mobile “Wi-Fi hotspots” offer more convenience than being anchored to home-based WiFi.  5G offers more security than public WiFi.  Plus, 5G’s multiple bands allow users and providers to individually manage bandwidth and coverage needs. 


Internet protocol-based over-the-air NextGenTV has launched in many US markets.  NextGen provides two sources of UltraHD HDR video  — local broadcast channels, and Intenet streaming access.  It is poised to become a cord-cutter’s primary source of UltraHD HDR video. 

NextGenTV broadcasts cover greater distances and extend deeper into buildings than HDTV.  Local NextGen UHD broadcasts are free.  Cable and satellite cord-cutting savings should more than cover the cost of streaming services, antennas, and installation.    It may also connect to mobile devices — cell phones, tablets, laptops — with included tuners. 

TV manufacturers can integrate a NextGen tuner or offer a set-top box.  The tuners include an off-air RG-6 antenna jack, plus WiFi and a hard-wire RJ-45 jack that provide connection and distribution to home router networks. 

Rooftop Antennas  

A TV picture is only as good as its input signal — garbage in garbage out.  The antenna is the NextGenTV portal.  A quality rooftop antenna produces RF signal gain.

Targeted RF gain improves the signal-to-noise ratio.  A high signal-to-noise ratio produces a clean picture. 

Rooftop antenna pricing ranges from about $80.00 to $300.00.  Add the cost of a mast, mounting hardware, and quad shield RG-6 coax.  You may also need a preamplifier, distribution amp, antenna rotator, splitter, combiner, filter, additional antenna, plus installation, which adds up to a profitable opportunity. 

If you’re new to the antenna category, then get kick-started with the following websites.

FCC DTV Reception Map

The FCC website offers broadcast data based on specific channels.

  • Distance from your location to broadcast tower.
  • Signal strength
  • Repack status of VHF channel numbers to a UHF frequency

Consumer Electronics Association Antenna Selection

The CEA partnered with Channel Master to assist antenna selection.

Continue to part #3 “UltraHDTV HDR”

Visit my website Ed’s AV Handbook & business site SandTrapAudio.



#1 The Next Wave

Sunday, August 30th, 2020

(1st of 4 parts)

Virtual events, trade-mags, and web-search cannot replace personal meetings with friends and reps.  Trade shows, product seminars, and distributor events, and our sales reps are primary sources of industry news and first-hand product information.  I count on their hands-on experience to separate noise from meaningful information.  This hands-on exchange of information is even more important this year. 

New channels of distribution plus communication and television technologies are transforming our AV landscape.  5G cellular networks offer a flood of Internet-based services — video conferencing, Internet of things, augmented & virtual reality, plus easier-access wide-bandwidth wireless streaming.

NextGenTV, based on Internet protocol, provides free over-the-air UltraHD HDR broadcast plus another access-point to AV streaming. 

UltraHD doubles HDTV resolution.  UHD-8K doubles UltraHD resolution.  More significantly, both pave the way for High Dynamic Range video.  HDR offers the potential to more than double color-gamut. 

And HDR’s potential shines on near infinite contrast ratio OLED and advancing IOLED television technology.  Individually each is a game-changer.  Collectively, they spearhead a new wave of AV magic and profitable opportunity. 

However, the magic disappears in the wrong interconnect, missing HDMI 2.1 support, an absent HDR format, and insufficient specification.  At worst, the picture is lost.  At best, the video downgrades to standard-dynamic-range. 

This 4 part blog aims to stand in until you resume hands-on conversation with your custom AV peers.

Next Part #2 NextWave Channels of Distribution


Visit my website Ed’s AV Handbook & business site SandTrapAudio.



Keep Pace

Thursday, March 5th, 2020

Keeping pace with our industry and technology is essential.  Reliable sources of information and instruction are needed.  We must maintain a solid foundation in the basics of audio and video, which are too often assumed.  More on that soon. 

Primary resources include industry associations, manufacturers, and distributors.  For example, CEDIA offers training at a cost.  Manufacturers and distributors offer free seminars that also include lunch. 

Industry-recognized blogs such as CE Pro and Smart Brief publications are trustworthy choices.  In addition, e-mags such as Home Theater Review, Audioholics, Tech Hive, TV Technology, C/Net, Stereophile, The Absolute Sound, and AVS Forum offer solid insight.

Internet sites such as Wikipedia offer dependable explanations of technologies.  But be wary of opinionated unqualified amateur online sites. 

Now, let’s return to neglected assumed AV basics.  I first recognized this condition long ago while conducting product sales training.  It was visible in the glazed looks and anxious demeanor of many trainees.  The root cause was assuming everyone was on the same playing field of knowledge; they were not.  I witnessed their distress in basic terms such as ‘stereo’ and ‘high fidelity. 

I resolved the problem by adding introductory basics to the sales training, including elementary terms, a sketch of AV physics, plus how stuff works.  The result was eye-opening — more than anticipated.  Recruits and even seasoned staff thanked me. 

My original training outline expanded into a personal binder that included upgraded explanations of AV physics, technology, and related subjects.  Ultimately that binder morphed into this website and blog.  Use them to get new recruits up to speed or to refresh what you already know.  Join my quest to ‘save the world from poor fidelity.


Friday, December 13th, 2019


  Terms such as audiophile, videophile, or custom AV pro do not adequately characterize the skill of my late friend Steve.

Steve was an AV wizard.  He based the foundation of his craft on his assertion that “everything makes a difference.”

He would add that his objective was to “minimize the compromise” of the distorting differences. 

Steve meticulously hunted down compromising difference points.  He listened, viewed, and evaluated each difference-point, including the electrical outlets, all interconnecting cables, attached components, as well as the acoustics and lighting environment. 

Then, if economically and physically feasible, he modified, replaced, or removed the compromising difference points.  His methodical “minimize the compromise” process consistently delivered hair-raising results of frisson. 

Frisson (pronounced ‘free-sawn’) is a sub-category of the goosebump.  It is a goosebump chill or thrill triggered by music, film, or art. 

A simple song can activate moments of frisson.  The images and soundtrack of a movie can also induce frisson.  Steve’s frisson-able process sealed a bond with customers that competitors could not break.  

Sometime in the last century, an audio dealer was confronted by a customer who did not want to see or sacrifice floor space for a speaker system.  He was prepared to trade audio fidelity for his vision of room aesthetics and settle for lower, yet still pleasant, audio fidelity. 

This begat the custom in-wall/in-ceiling speaker.  Its understandable compromises — small woofer, attachment to a room boundary, and (often) above ear level placement — impede frisson.  

Although handicapped by the custom speaker, frisson can still be achieved if compromises are minimized, with a tailored recipe of amplification, audio/video sources, speaker placement, interconnecting cable, and acoustical modifications. 

Consider the following list of Steve-type ingredients. 

• Select a receiver/amplifier with larger and better-isolated power supplies. 

• Use high-resolution audio and HDR UHD video sources. 

• Install speakers as close to ear level as possible  If surround sound — at least the center channel.

• Engage ‘small’ or adjust the crossover in the speaker setup to avoid over-driving small woofers. 

• Reroute low-frequency audio to a sub-woofer. 

• Hide the sub-woofer (in a wicker basket?) while avoiding distorting room mode placement. 

• Install acoustic absorption at the ceiling 1st points of reflection and behind seating near a wall.

• Install carpeting or a throw rug with extra padding at the floor 1st point of reflection. 

• Reinforce sheetrock mounted speakers with a SandTrap.

• Reduce noise from the exterior and interior sources.  It is as simple as closing a window or as complicated as soundproofing the room. 

• Regarding video performance: minimize the influence of direct lighting, ambient lighting, plus any reflected color within the room.

• Calibrate the audio and video. 

Form an unbreakable bond with your customer.  Select applicable workable ingredients from the list.  Spice it up with your ingredients.  Stir, bake, and then install your custom concoction of frisson-able AV wizardry.


Captain Ed 

Saving the World from Poor Fidelity   Since 1972

Ed’s AV


Location, location, location

Wednesday, October 11th, 2017

I lifted this blog from my website Ed’s AV  It addresses the challenging subject of how to choose a retail location.  It is a 9 step process that defines trade area boundaries, locates its trading areas, describes its demographics, and selects a brick-n-mortar home.  But before we proceed, let’s confirm three definitions for clarity.

1. Trade Area – the total geographical area in which your customers reside.
2. Trading Areas – locations within a trade area where the action of trading takes place.
3. Location – the address you select to trade in a trading area.

Step 1 Trade area map
Print a map of your prospective trade area with streets, major geographical features, and census tracts.  Select this link to select Lookups.

Step 2 Trade area barriers
A barrier placed between a customer and a retail location impedes their travel. People avoid barriers.  Even if a convenient bridge or underpass is present, they tend to drive to a business on their side.  Highlight natural and man-made barriers in the trade area that impede travel to trading areas; this includes rivers, freeways, railroad tracks, airports, mountains/hills, etc.

Step 3 Local routes
Seek and highlight popular local routes within the trade area to churches, schools, local government, post office, grocery stores, competitors, malls, commuter highways, hospitals, ballparks, and other destinations.

Step 4 Center focus
Select a feasible prospective location situated on a local route between your customer prospects and the competition.

Step 5 Circular mapping
Return to your trade area map. Draw a series of circles (feasible location at the center) with radii of 1 mile, 2 miles, 5 miles, 10 miles, 15 miles, 20 miles, and more if desired.

Step 6 Data spreadsheet
Return to Lookups.

Search for — and create a spreadsheet list of — the trade-area census tract data within the circled area as follows:
a. List trade-area census tract numbers in the first column.
b. Add the following demographic headings:
– population
– # of households,
– your targeted income groups
– your targeted age groups
– if relevant – your targeted gender
c. Insert the census tract data for each demographic.

Step 7  The guesstimate
Add this column heading “%” to the spreadsheet.  Inspect the census tracts within each region created and bounded by the circles.  Given the trade area barriers, your local route knowledge, and distance from the proposed location – guesstimate the % of households that will choose to travel from each census tract toward the proposed location versus competitors in the opposite direction.  Insert your guesstimate into its ‘%’ spreadsheet column.

Step 8  The factored sum
Return to the spreadsheet. Add an extra column next to each demographic.  Multiply each census tract demographic by the results of step 7.  Enter each result into its extra data column.
– (population) x (Step 7 results)
– (# households) x (Step 7 results)
– (income group) x (Step 7 results)
– (age group) x (Step 7 results)
– (gender) x (Step 7 results)
Sum each ‘extra’ demographic column.  The totals of each ‘extra’ column are your exclusive trade area demographics.

We’re almost home
You have drawn the trade-area boundaries, identified trading-area, and local routes. You have a clear demographic sketch of your customers. Now choose a home location.

Step 9 Head them off at the pass.
Next to committing money to the business, choosing a retail location may be your most taxing business decision.  In addition to practical functions, a retail location via its storefront can also become your most productive promotional tool.

The best locations are between customers and significant competitors.  In effect, the storefront signage “heads them off at the pass”.  This better location will cost more than alternatives.  But it will deliver an edge that alternative locations can only offset with increased promotional expenditures higher than the difference between a lower-cost location and a better location.

Next, create an annual profit & loss forecast.  Its operating expenses will include your budget for rent/mortgage.  But be prepared to entertain the idea of reallocating budgeted promotional funds to your rent or mortgage.

Enlist the guidance of a seasoned local Realtor who knows the local travel paths of the trade area.  As a rule, they are the gray-haired agents at a rear desk in a real estate office.  Present the agent with a list of your qualifying needs and wants.  Include your budget for rent or purchase.

A real estate agent is sufficient.  But also speak to other retailers in the trade area.  Take drives from different points within the trade area to the proposed location.   If your inquiries and trade area data confirm the store location is within budget, secure it with a lease or a purchase.


Fidelity without truth?

Monday, April 17th, 2017

Several years ago, Samsung released a very good TV.  But this blog is not about their TV.  It’s about manufacturers misleading their customers and right vs wrong.

Let’s begin with a historical perspective.  In the fall of 2007 or thereabout, Samsung introduced an LED television.  At the time, I was perplexed.  I didn’t think real LED TV technology was ready for mass production.  After a frustrating search, I confirmed that it wasn’t.

To my ultimate surprise, Samsung impeded my search.  Although the term LED was ever-present in their advertising copy, they omitted the term LCD.  They buried any association between the terms LCD and LED in a hard-to-find spec page.  As is now commonly understood, that page revealed that LED referred only to LCD TV backlighting.

The campaign of misinformation was further advanced by the ‘big-box’.  The ‘box’ promoted the LED theme that minimized the term LCD.  They also parroted half-truths that slandered competing plasma TVs.  Half-truths such as the LED TV offered longer life than a plasma TV.  The LED TV was more energy-efficient than plasma.  The LED TV offered 120Hz processing.  Plasma did not.

In truth, an LCD or plasma panel has a half-brightness life expectancy of 15 years or more.  Their power supplies are more likely to die long before the TV panel.  LED/LCD is more energy-efficient than plasma, but only by an insignificant margin. Plasma did not offer 120Hz processing.  Well, plasma didn’t need it.  120Hz processing is an exclusive band-aid for slow LCD pixel response and continuous ‘on’ LCD backlighting.

In retrospect, I suspect the naive ill-informed on the floor ‘big boxers’ were also misled by their management and Samsung.  Therefore I am cutting them some slack.

In any case, Samsung’s campaign was successful.  Their promotional sleight of hand had differentiated their TV on crowded retail floors.  In my view, their campaign was a prominent factor in vaulting Samsung sales beyond the bigger players of the time – Sony, Panasonic, Mitsubishi, Pioneer.  In fairness, the new TV did offer two popular features.  It was brighter plus thinner than the plasma and previous LCD TVs.  Thin and bright still sells a lot of TVs.

CES January 2017 – Samsung introduced quantum dot QLED TV.  Wait, I didn’t think quantum dot TV technology was ready for mass production.  I was perplexed.  After another impeded search, I confirmed that real-Q-Dot pixel TVs were not ready for mass production.  I found the truth at websites such as,,, and others.  I did not find it via Samsung.

Samsung’s QLED TV wasn’t new technology.  QLED primarily re-branded their 3rd generation SUHD models.  They promoted the placement of a quantum dot film in front of LED back-lighting.  The Quantum-dot film corrected the blue-leaning color of the LED.  That is, the film provided a more accurate white backlight.

Sony Triluminos LCD TVs had used the quantum dot film technique for many years.  The new Samsung as Sony was a very good UltraHD HDR LCD TV.  However, it did not support all UltraHD HDR formats.  This was an issue for consumers who wanted high-end video performance.

Sony supported Dolby Vision but lacked support for the HGL and Technicolor HDR formats.  Samsung did not support any of these formats.  And as with the Q-dot and LED truth, the HDR facts were not easily accessible.

Keep in mind – the primary theme of this blog is not about the TV.  It’s about the omission of essential facts by the manufacturer.  I’m tired of being misled.  I do not like folks who attempt to deceive me.  This blog is about right versus wrong.  It’s wrong to lie.

Samsung was not alone.  In addition to misleading TV facts, many manufacturers of AV receivers are misleading customers about power ratings – they’re lying.  Some manufacturers refer to a 3-inch speaker as a ‘woofer’ – What?  Some tout Bluetooth speakers as a high-fidelity product.   They’re OK – as a decent boom-box was in the 1980s.  But HiFi – no way.  I can offer more examples.  But, I think you get the point.

Look, I expect to be lied to by sleazy lawyers and politicians.  But I draw the line at my high fidelity AV world.  Fidelity should apply to how we behave — not just the picture and sound.  Without truth, how can there be fidelity?  Help me, save the world from poor fidelity,.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 7

Sunday, April 2nd, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity

Part 7  System compatibility.
Ultra-HDTV home theater system compatibility is critical.     All components and interconnecting cables must be capable of passing a 18Gbps Ultra-HD video signal. This includes the source component,  AV receiver, AV preamp, plus the TV or Projector.

However the ISF’s Joel Silver has discovered that many     AV receivers and switchers lack 18Gbps bandwidth. Many squeeze a 13.5Gbps UHD Blu-ray down to a 9Gbps standard dynamic range image.  In some cases screens ‘blank out’ except for the text message “Incompatible Signal”.

TV setup is another issue.  The ‘Deep Color’ setting in the TV’s menu must be enabled for the playback of Ultra-HD HDR Blu-ray discs. This may also require a reboot of the TV.

Then beware of TVs advertised as “HDR enabled” or “HDR compatible”.  They may recognize HDR content. And they will produce an image.  But they do not process HDR content.  “HDR enabled TVs”  “de-tune” HDR content to standard dynamic range performance.  This process is referred to as “Color Mapping” or “Tone Mapping”.

Therefore I offer this recommendation.  Set up all UltraHD systems at your shop to confirm performance.  Even if the product spec sheets state all is good.  This simple rule will avoid an embarrassing situation.

Hurry up and get to the chorus
Customers do not pay for lectures.  They just want to have fun.  Indeed, you must meet, greet, and qualify customers. But keep buzzwords to a minimum.  Assess their wants and make your recommendations. Then, as they say in the music world, “hurry up and get to the chorus”. Let an HDR Ultra-HD home theater demonstration sing for itself.

That concludes this 7 part blog.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 6

Sunday, March 26th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV — Part 6 Ultra-HD sources   (3/17)

Ultra-HD sources currently include Ethernet rental/purchase services, Ethernet real-time streaming, and the Blu-ray disc.

Streaming services have a bandwidth issue. 25Mbps seems to be the download speed ‘sweet spot’ for Ultra-HD streaming. Yet the average consumer connection is only 15 Mbps.  Unlike streaming, download-only services avoid the issue by storing the data to a media server device (hard drive with user interface) for later playback.  Blu-ray discs also avoid the issue.  Just buy or rent a disc.  Load disc in the player.  Press play and view.

The initial Ultra-HD Blu-ray players and most TVs are limited to the HDR10 format. Many will soon offer Dolby Vision upgrades. The jury is still out on other formats.  Finally, Ultra-HD broadcast is currently limited to DirectTV and Dishnet via a limited selection of channels.  Off-air terrestrial broadcasts do not yet exist.

Ethernet real-time streaming and download purchase/rental services include:
– Netflix
Streaming Ultra-HD HDR10 & Dolby Vision service.
– Amazon Instant Video
Streaming UHD HDR10 & Dolby Vision Instant Video service.
– Vudu (Walmart)
Ultra-HD HDR10 and Dolby Vision download purchase or rental only service.
Currently limited to certain LG and Vizio 4K UHD TVs
– YouTube UHD
Streaming only service.
Uses Google VP9 compression (Not HEVC).
– Fandango Now
Streaming or download purchase/rental via Samsung & LG TVs, Roku, or Vidity storage devices.
– Google Play
UHD HDR download purchase only service.
– Sony’s Ultra 4K Movies
Ultra-HD HDR download purchase only service.
– Vidity Ultra-HD
Ultra-HD HDR for download purchase only service.
– UltraFlix
UlraHD download rental only service.

That concludes Part 6.   Next Part 7 System Compatibility.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 5

Sunday, March 19th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV    (3/17)

Part 5  More HDMI Tips
HDMI uses 19 pins to move audio and video from point A to B.  The pins offer other functions such as the audio return channel (ARC), an Ethernet path, and ‘remote’ control functions.  But that bloody ARC feature can drive many AV receivers crazy.
Tip – Go to the TV setup menu and turn ARC off unless you intend to use it.

A single 19 pin interconnecting AV cable is convenient.  But the primary purpose of HDMI’s 19 pins is to prevent unauthorized copying.  It does this via Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling.  TMDS interleaves video, audio, and data via three time-controlled digital packets.  How this actually works is beyond my pay grade. However, AV Pros should be particularly aware of Pin #19. It includes the 5-volt Hot Plug Detect function.  This pin carries 5 volts from the source component to the next components’ HDMI sink chip.  This is a critical.  If the voltage is corrupted the HDMI world stops – no picture, no sound.
Tip – DPL Labs’ Jeff Boccaccio’s rule #1. “Don’t mess with the 5 volts”.

HDMI has problems with cable lengths over 30 feet.  The problem can be solved with ‘active’ amplified cables.  However some manufacturers rely on Pin #19’s 5 volts to power their cable.  That breaks Boccaccio’s rule #1 “Don’t mess with the 5 volts”.
Tip – Install active cables with dedicated power supplies.

HDR bandwidth puts even more stress on Pin #19’s limited voltage.  The use of fiber optic cabling can avoid the issue.  Reasonable pricing plus easier-to-use terminating tools have made fiber a feasible choice.
Tip – Research the use of fiber optic cable for long cable run installations.

That concludes part 5. Next Part 6 Ultra-HDTV sources.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 4

Monday, March 13th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV   (3/17)

Part 4  The High Definition Multimedia Interface
HDMI can be the bane of an AV professional’s daily work.  Blank screens, intermittent video, and noisy images caused by inconsistent manufacturing changing specs, and long cable lengths are all too common.  This blog won’t change that.  But it may add some insight that leads to possible solutions.

The ‘High Definition Multimedia Interface is a system (19-conductor interconnecting cable, dedicated termination, and microprocessing IC’s with software) that primarily prevents unauthorized copying.  The HDMI IC’s are installed in the source component, the display, and in any component in the system path (receiver/preamp/switcher).

The source HDMI IC pings the next HDMI IC.  That chip simultaneously responds with a return ‘handshake message’ AND pings the next chip (if any).  Each chip waits for the ‘handshake’ response.  Any incorrect responses result in a blank screen, intermittent picture, or noisy picture.  Solutions can include;
– Unplug and reinsert cable.
– Replace the cable. But not necessarily a more expensive cable – just another cable.
– Experiment by replacing electronic components.  Even if the component works in another system.  Some combinations simply don’t like each other.
– Set up all system components in-house to confirm performance before driving to an installation.

HDMI has evolved thru many versions.  Each is backward compatible which permits the previous evolution of video and audio to pass.

HDMI 1.4 & 1.4a (4,096 x 2,160 @ up to 24fps)
Version 1.4 supports HDTV plus the audio return and Ethernet channels.
Version 1.4a supports 3D.
– Recommend ‘High Speed’ (high bandwidth) cable.

HDMI 2.0 (3840 x 2160p @ 60fps)
Version 2.0 supports Ultra High Definition 18Gbps bandwidth @ 60fps.
It also provides for dual-screen video streams. (sort of picture in picture)
– Recommend ‘Premium High Speed’ cable.

HDMI 2.0a
Version 2.0a supports High Dynamic Range formats.
– Recommend ‘Premium High Speed’ cable.

HDMI 2.0b
Version 2.0b supports EOTF Dynamic HDR formats.
2.0b also provides up to 32 channels of multi-dimensional digital audio.
– Recommend ‘Premium High-Speed cable.

HDMI 2.1 supports 48Gbps bandwidth, 8K video resolution @ 60Hz or UltraHD @ 120Hz.
Support for 120 frames per second enables Virtual and Augmented Reality.  2.1 also supports Hi-Resolution audio, object-based surround sound, and E-ARC (audio return channel).
– Install 48Gbps bandwidth cable.

The first HDMI 2.1 product won’t be released until 2018.  Although 2.1 supports 48Gbps bandwidth, Internet providers are still trying to deal with 25Gbps.  So, don’t reach for your wallet yet.  But do prep your installations for cable replacement.  There is a lot to be confirmed.


That concludes part 4.  Next part 5  More HDMI Tips.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 3

Wednesday, March 8th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV  (3/17)

Part 3  HDR Format War?
An HDR UltraHDTV must support the source HDR format.  If not, the image may be downgraded to standard dynamic range at less than Ultra-HD resolution or worse — a blank screen.  The issue is a standard format does not yet exist.

Several current TVs support more than one HDR format.    To date, HDR10 and Dolby Vision are the most prominent.  However a Technicolor/Philips joint venture is becoming an alternative; As is the BBC/NHK Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) format.  The following is a list of the competing formats being considered.

HDR10 (10-bit color) is a combination of the SMPTE HDR standard and Consumer Technology Association HDMI 2.0a spec.  It is currently the baseline format.   An enhanced HDR12 is also in the works that support Dynamic HDR as the Dolby Vision and HGL formats.

Warning: Beware of Entry-level Ultra-HDTVs advertised as “HDR-enabled or compatible’.  They may recognize HDR10 content and produce a picture.   But they DO NOT provide HDR performance.

12 Bit Dolby Vision
Dolby is a 12bit color format.  In comparison to 10bit formats — the 2 extra bits increases the color palate from one billion to four billion colors.  Dolby is also a dynamic format that continuously optimizes night and daylight images on a ‘dynamic’ frame-by-frame basis.

In addition Dolby Vision is compatible with the HDMI 2.0 and 2.0a standards (HDR10 requires 2.0a).  Dolby is also backward compatible with HDR10 sets.  In my mind backward to HDR10  says it all.

Phillips Technicolor Format
Phillips/Technicolor is a Dynamic HDR format that requires the HDMI 2.0a standard.   It has been reported that it may be more compatible with the library of standard-dynamic-range HDTV video broadcast and Ethernet streaming. (I’m not sure what that will actually mean on the TV screen.)  The jury is out.

Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG)
HLG is being promoted by the BBC & NHK as a broadcast standard that employs a Dynamic frame-by-frame EOTF process based on the display’s actual peak luma value.   HLG requires HDMI 2.0b.  This format may be the long shot winner in this possible war.

Is it a war?
The lack of a standard may produce a format war.  But don’t Panic – yet.   There are still other issues to be concerned about such as every AV pro’s favorite subject – HDMI.

That’s Next in part 4.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 2

Tuesday, February 28th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV   (2/17)

Part 2 Buzzword Noise Reduction
This is an outline of the technologies that support the stunning images on HDR Ultra-HDTV screens. The objective is to clarify their definition and reduce the ‘buzzword-noise’ that obscures their significance and misleads many to pitch an HDR Ultra-HDTV as simply a brighter TV.

High Dynamic Range
High Dynamic Range is primarily about an expanded range of luminance – the difference between black and the brightest white light – that allows for a simultaneous display of bright highlights and dark shadow detail. But this breakthrough that “changes the nature of television as we know it” is achieved via three additional inter-weaved video elements: color space, gray-scale, and color gamut.

The Illuminating Details
The following sheds more light on the ‘interweaved elements. It also introduces many of their
underlying building blocks and video allies.  This includes Color Volume, Color Depth, Bit Depth, Deep Color, DCI P3, the Nit, Gamma, EOTF, frame rate, HEVC, and the CIE Color Chart.

The CIE Color Chart is the official chart of visible color. It is defined by the red, green, blue X, Y color mix points and their Z grayscale amplitude (brightness) points.  D65 specifies the brightest Z-point goal.  Envision the illustration as a three-dimensional cone. The CIE is an international organization.

Color Space is simply the total referenced space within the Color Chart cone.

Color Gamut is the color space allocated to video technology.  For example; the larger triangle defines REC 2020 Ultra-HDTV color gamut.  The smaller triangle defines REC709  HDTV color gamut.

Color Volume measures color gamut as a percentage of the total color space.  For example; Ultra-HDTV covers 75.8% of the total color space. HDTV covers 35.9% of the color space

Color Depth or Bit Depth is the number of computer bits allocated to create a video color sub-pixel.  The number of bits determines the possible range of color shades.  For example; 8-bit color provides up to 255 shades per red-green-blue sub-pixel for a total of 16.78 million colors.  10-bit color provides up to 1024 shades for a total of 1.07 billion colors.  12- bit as employed by Dolby Vision provides even more shades.

Deep Color describes 10 bit or more color depth. For example, 10 bit HDR10 and 12 bit Dolby Vision offer Deep Color potential.   Many new TVs can be enabled to reproduce Deep Color.

DCI P3 – The Digital Cinema Initiative P3 spec defines the color gamut of commercial digital cinema that covers 53.6% of the CIE Color Chart.

Note: Current TVs are limited to the DCI P3 specification.   Although we may look forward to the full CIE 2020 color space spec; the current library of movies is limited to DCI P3.  The good news is DCI P3 is a significant improvement over HDTV.

NIT – The NIT is a unit of TV screen brightness.  This is different from the ANSI lumen that measures the reflected screen brightness produced by a video projector. As a reference; the ISF’s Silver and Paullin stated; “Our old TV content was created thinking in terms of brightness at 100 Nits; this is what NTSC CRT reference monitors were capable of.  HDR monitors will be capable of 4,000 to 10,000 Nits.”

Different standards!

HDR LCD TVs and HDR OLED TVs are defined by different brightness standards. An HDR LCD TV must be capable of over 1,000 Nits peak brightness and less than 0.05 nits black level. An HDR OLED TV must be capable of 540 Nits brightness and less than 0.0005 nits black level.
The LCD brightness spec is near twice the OLED spec. This will lead many to claim LCD is better than OLED. However HDR OLED black level is 100 times lower. If you want the TV with the largest dynamic range – the difference between peak brightness and black level; then HDR OLED crushes HDR LCD.

Note: The NIT is too light as the decibel is to the sound pressure level.
Similar to hearing, human vision is not evenly sensitive to the entire bandwidth of light.
The eye is most sensitive to green light, less to red, and even less to blue.  This subjective visual response is defined as luminance.  The subjective response to sound is called loudness.

Gamma is a fixed gray-scale luminance correction to accommodate human perception.  If you are an old audio pro – gamma is similar to Fletcher/Munson loudness correction.

EOTF or Electro-Optical Transfer Function is a dynamic (not fixed as gamma) frame by frame luminance adjustment.  The Hybrid Log-Gamma and Phillips/Technicolor HDR formats use this technology. (More on this later)

Frame Rates [frames per second] – The REC 2020 HDR UltraHD specification provides for 120fps or 60fps. The 120fps option is significant because it exceeds the frame rate requirement for Virtual Reality and Augment Reality.

HEVC – Ultra-HDTV broadcast and Blu-ray discs require High-Efficiency Video Coding compression. HEVC ‘squeezes’ video data within their limited bandwidth. Unaltered, Ultra-HD cannot fit within Blu-ray disc space or via future off-air broadcast bandwidth.  This is not a consumer issue. Content and hardware providers’ products will comply.

In an HDR nutshell
HDR luminance sets the table for an extended gray scale that creates a broader space of color.  The expansive gray-scale/color-space lays the foundation for a wider color gamut Ultra-HDTV specification.

The HDR breakthrough is derived from the combination of concurrent dark/bright light plus the expanded shades of color.   This is not about more pixels or a brighter screen.  This is about better pixels.

That concludes Part 2.    Coming Soon Part 3 – The possible format war.