Archive for March, 2017

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 6

Sunday, March 26th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV — Part 6 Ultra-HD sources

Ultra-HD sources currently include Ethernet rental/purchase services, Ethernet real-time streaming, and the Blu-ray disc.

Streaming services have a bandwidth issue. 25Mbps seems to be the download speed ‘sweet spot’ for Ultra-HD streaming. Yet the average consumer connection is only 15 Mbps.  Unlike streaming, download only services avoid the issue by storing the data to a media server device (hard drive with user interface) for later playback.  Blu-ray discs also avoid the issue.  Just buy or rent a disc.  Load disc in player.  Press play and view.

The initial Ultra-HD Blu-ray players and most TVs are limited to the HDR10 format. Many will soon offer Dolby Vision upgrades. They jury is still out on other formats.  Finally Ultra-HD broadcast is currently limited to DirectTV and Dishnet via a limited selection of channels.  Off-air terrestrial broadcasts do not yet exist.

Ethernet real time streaming and download purchase/rental services include:
– Netflix
Streaming Ultra-HD HDR10 & Dolby Vision service.
– Amazon Instant Video
Streaming UHD HDR10 & Dolby Vision Instant Video service.
– Vudu (Walmart)
Ultra-HD HDR10 and Dolby Vision download purchase or rental only service.
Currently limited to certain LG and Vizio 4K UHD TVs
– YouTube UHD
Streaming only service.
Uses Google VP9 compression (Not HEVC) .
– Fandango Now
Streaming or download purchase/rental via Samsung & LG TVs, Roku, or Vidity storage devices.
– Google Play
UHD HDR download purchase only service.
– Sony’s Ultra 4K Movies
Ultra-HD HDR download purchase only service.
– Vidity Ultra-HD
Ultra-HD HDR for download purchase only service.
– UltraFlix
UlraHD download rental only service.

That concludes Part 6.   Next Part 7 System Compatibility.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 5

Sunday, March 19th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV

Part 5  More HDMI Tips
HDMI uses 19 pins to move audio and video from point A to B.  The pins offer other functions such as the audio return channel (ARC), an Ethernet path, and ‘remote’ control functions.  But that bloody ARC feature can drive many AV receivers crazy.
Tip – Go to the TV setup menu and turn ARC off unless you intend to use it.

A single 19 pin interconnecting AV cable is convenient.  But the primary purpose of HDMI’s 19 pins is to prevent unauthorized copying.  It does this via Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling.  TMDS interleaves video, audio, and data via three time controlled digital packets.  How this actually works is beyond my pay grade. However AV Pros should be particularly aware of Pin #19. It includes the 5 volt Hot Plug Detect function.  This pin carries 5 volts from the source component to the next components’ HDMI sink chip.  This is a critical.  If the voltage is corrupted the HDMI world stops – no picture, no sound.
Tip – DPL Labs’ Jeff Boccaccio’s rule #1. “Don’t mess with the 5 volts”.

HDMI has problems with cable lengths over 30 feet.  The problem can be solved with ‘active’ amplified cables.  However some manufacturers rely on Pin #19’s 5 volts to power their cable.  That breaks Boccaccio’s rule #1 “Don’t mess with the 5 volts”.
Tip – Install active cables with dedicated power supplies.

HDR bandwidth puts even more stress on Pin #19’s limited voltage.  The use of fiber optic cabling can avoid the issue.  Reasonable pricing plus easier to use terminating tools have made fiber a feasible choice.
Tip – Research the use of fiber optic cable for long cable run installations.

That concludes part 5. Next Part 6 Ultra-HDTV sources.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 4

Monday, March 13th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV

Part 4  The High Definition Multimedia Interface
HDMI can be the bane of an AV professional’s daily work.  Blank screens, intermittent video, and noisy images caused by inconsistent manufacturing, changing specs, and long cable lengths are all too common.  This blog won’t change that.  But it may add some insight that leads to possible solutions.

The ‘High Definition Multimedia Interface’ is a system (19 conductor interconnecting cable, dedicated termination, and microprocessing IC’s with software) that primarily prevents unauthorized copying.  The HDMI IC’s are installed in the source component, the display, and in any component in the system path (receiver/preamp/switcher).

The source HDMI IC pings the next HDMI IC.  That chip simultaneously responds with a return ‘handshake message’ AND pings the next chip (if any).  Each chip waits for the ‘handshake’ response.  Any incorrect responses results in a blank screen, intermittent picture, or noisy picture.  Solutions can include;
– Unplug and reinsert cable.
– Replace the cable. But not necessarily a more expensive cable – just another cable.
– Experiment by replacing electronic components.  Even if the component works in another          system.  Some combinations simply don’t like each other.
– Set up all system components in-house to confirm performance before driving to an                    installation.

HDMI has evolved thru many versions.  Each is backward compatible which permits the previous evolution of video and audio to pass.

HDMI 1.4 & 1.4a (4,096 x 2,160 @ up to 24fps)
Version 1.4 supports HDTV plus the audio return and Ethernet channels.
Version 1.4a supports 3D.
– Recommend ‘High Speed’ (high bandwidth) cable.

HDMI 2.0 (3840 x 2160p @ 60fps)
Version 2.0 supports Ultra High Definition 18Gbps bandwidth @ 60fps.
It also provides for dual screen video streams. (sort of picture in picture)
– Recommend ‘Premium High Speed’ cable.

HDMI 2.0a
Version 2.0a supports High Dynmaic Range formats.
– Recommend ‘Premium High Speed’ cable.

HDMI 2.0b
Version 2.0b supports EOTF Dynamic HDR formats.
2.0b also provides up to 32 channels of multi-dimensional digital audio.
– Recommend ‘Premium High Speed cable.

HDMI 2.1 supports 48Gbps bandwidth, 8K video resolution @ 60Hz or UltraHD @ 120Hz.
Support for 120 frames per second enables Virtual and Augmented Reality.  2.1 also supports Hi-Resolution audio, object based surround sound, and E-ARC (audio return channel).
– Install 48Gbps bandwidth cable.

The first HDMI 2.1 product won’t be released until 2018.  Although 2.1 supports 48Gbps bandwidth, Internet providers are still trying to deal with 25Gbps.  So, don’t reach for your wallet yet.  But do prep your installations for cable replacement.  Their is is lot to be confirmed.

 

That concludes part 4.  Next part 5  More HDMI Tips.

HDR Ultra-HDTV Part 3

Wednesday, March 8th, 2017

Ed’s AV Handbook
Saving the world from poor fidelity
HDR Ultra-HDTV

Part 3  HDR Format War?
An HDR UltraHDTV must support the source HDR format.  If not, the image may be downgraded to standard dynamic range at less than Ultra-HD resolution or worse — a blank screen.  The issue is a standard format does not yet exist.

Several current TV’s support more than one HDR format.    To date HDR10 and Dolby Vision are the most prominent.  However a Technicolor/Philips joint venture is becoming an alternative; As is the BBC/NHK Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) format.  The following is a list of the competing formats being considered.

HDR10
HDR10 (10 bit color) is a combination of the SMPTE HDR standard and Consumer Technology Association HDMI 2.0a spec.  It is currently the baseline format.   An enhanced HDR12 is also in the works that supports Dynamic HDR as the Dolby Vision and HGL formats.

Warning: Beware of Entry level Ultra-HDTVs advertised as “HDR enabled or compatible’.  They may recognize HDR10 content and produce a picture.   But they DO NOT provide HDR performance.

12 Bit Dolby Vision
Dolby is a 12bit color format.  In comparison to 10bit formats — the 2 extra bits increases the color palate from one billion to four billion colors.  Dolby is also a dynamic format that continuously optimizes night and daylight images on a ‘dynamic’ frame-by-frame basis.

In addition Dolby Vision is compatible with the HDMI 2.0 and 2.0a standards (HDR10 requires 2.0a).  Dolby is also backwards compatible with HDR10 sets.  In my mind ‘backwards to HDR10 ‘ says it all.

Phillips Technicolor Format
Phillips/Technicolor is a Dynamic HDR format that requires the HDMI 2.0a standard.   It has been reported that it may be more compatible with the library of standard-dynaminc-range HDTV video broadcast and Ethernet streaming. (I’m not sure what that will actually mean on the TV screen.)  The jury is out.

Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG)
HLG is being promoted by the BBC & NHK as a broadcast standard that employs a Dynamic frame-by-frame EOTF process based on the display’s actual peak luma value.   HLG requires HDMI 2.0b.  This format may be the long shot winner in this possible war.

Is it a war?
The lack of a standard may produce a format war.  But don’t Panic – yet.   There are still other issues to be concerned about such as every AV pro’s favorite subject – HDMI.

That’s Next in part 4.